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Computer Memory

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What is Computer Memory?

In computer, memory is referred to a tool that’s utilized to store data for immediate use during a PC. It regularly refers to semiconductor memory, explicitly metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memory, where information is put away inside MOS memory cells on a silicon incorporated circuit chip. The term “memory” is regularly synonymous with the term, “primary storage”. PC memory works at a rapid, for instance, irregular access memory (RAM), as a qualification from capacity that gives moderate to-get to data, however, it offers higher limits. If necessary, the substance of the PC memory can be moved to optional capacity; an extremely basic method for doing this is through a memory the executives system called “virtual memory”. An obsolete equivalent word for memory is store.

What does it mean?

The term “memory”, signifying “primary storage” or “main memory”, is frequently connected with addressable semiconductor memory, for example incorporated circuits comprising of silicon-based MOS transistors, utilized for instance as essential stockpiling yet in addition different purposes in PCs and other advanced electronic gadgets. There are two principal sorts of semiconductor memory, unstable and non-unpredictable. Instances of non-unstable memory are streak memory (utilized as optional memory) and ROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM memory (utilized for putting away firmware, for example, BIOS). Instances of unpredictable memory are essential stockpiling, which is normally unique irregular access memory (DRAM), and quick CPU reserve memory, which is commonly static arbitrary access memory (SRAM) that is quick yet vitality devouring, offering lower memory areal thickness than DRAM.

Most semiconductor memory is sorted out into memory cells or bistable flip-flounders, each putting away one piece (0 or 1). Streak memory association incorporates both one piece for every memory cell and different bits per cell (called MLC, Multiple Level Cell). The memory cells are assembled into expressions of fixed word length, for instance, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 piece. Each word can be gotten to by a twofold location of N bit, making it conceivable to store 2 brought by N words up in the memory. This suggests processor enrolls regularly are not considered as memory, since they just store single word and do exclude a tending to the system.

Common secondary storage devices are hard disk drives and solid-state drives.

Computer Memory

Memory is much the same as the human mind. It is utilized to store information and guidelines. PC memory is the extra room in the PC, where information is to be handled and guidelines required for preparing are put away. The memory is partitioned into a huge number of little parts called cells. Every area or cell has a remarkable location, which differs from zero to memory size less one. For instance, in the event that the PC has 64k words, at that point this memory unit has 64 * 1024 = 65536 memory areas. The location of these areas shifts from 0 to 65535.

Memory is principal of three sorts −

  • Cache Memory
  • Primary/Main Memory
  • Secondary Memory

Cache Memory

Cache memory is an exceptionally fast semiconductor memory which can accelerate the CPU. It goes about as a cushion between the CPU and the fundamental memory. It is utilized to hold those pieces of information and program which are most every now and again utilized by the CPU. The pieces of information and projects are moved from the plate to reserve memory by the working framework, from where the CPU can get to them.

Advantages

The benefits of store memory are as per the following −

  • Cache memory is quicker than the primary memory.
  • It consumes less access time when contrasted with principle memory.
  • It stores the program that can be executed inside a brief timeframe.
  • Also, It stores information for temporary use.

Disadvantages

The disadvantages of cache memory are as per the following −

  • Cache memory has restricted limits.
  • It is over the top expensive.

Primary Memory (Main Memory)

Primary memory holds just that information and directions on which the PC is as of now working. It has a restricted limit and information is lost when force is turned off. It is commonly comprised of semiconductor devices. These recollections are not as quick as registers. The information and guidance required to be handled lives in the primary memory. It is partitioned into two subcategories RAM and ROM.

Qualities of Main Memory

  • These are semiconductor recollections.
  • It is known as the fundamental memory.
  • Typically unpredictable memory.
  • Information is lost on the off chance that force is turned off.
  • It is the working memory of the computer.
  • Faster than secondary memories.
  • A computer can’t run without the primary memory.

Secondary Memory

This kind of memory is otherwise called external memory or non-volatile. It is slower than the primary memory. These are utilized for putting away information/data for all time. CPU straightforwardly doesn’t get to these memories; rather they are gotten to through info yield schedules. The substance of optional recollections is first moved to the principle memory, and afterward, the CPU can get to it. For instance, plate, CD-ROM, DVD, and so forth. The size of secondary memory varies according to the different classification of computers.

Features of Secondary Memory

  • These are magnetic and optical memories.
  • It is known as the backup memory.
  • It is a kind of non-volatile memory.
  • Information is forever put away regardless of whether power is turned off.
  • It is utilized for the capacity of information in a PC.
  • A computer may run without the auxiliary memory.
  • Slower than primary memory.

 

5 reasons Which make Telegram Best

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Hi everybody. Today we will consider five motivations to utilize telegram from Pavel Durov. Probably the best errand person on the planet, which for reasons unknown has not yet flourished in Russia and Ukraine. Though this messenger have got it roots going deep in India. Go!

Reason One – Speed.

I have no clue how Whatsapp functions in Russia and Ukraine, yet in India this is an awful slacking thing. In telegram, all is well, the sending speed is just a moment, even at a low Web speed. Everything is transmitted in a moment or two, and server crashes are incredibly uncommon. I can’t help thinking this is a gigantic in addition to for the ambassador.

The subsequent explanation is Structure.

It is extremely stylish, everything is customized to a similar style, nothing sticks out. As indicated by the ordinances of Material Plan, rapidly and in a base number of snaps. Additionally, the size of the application is an or more, it is littler than Whatsapp, Viber and so on.

Reason Three – Multiple platform.

Totally all over the place – Android, iOS, Windows, Macintosh operating system and even the Internet customer. In addition, it works similarly well all over the place, well, the structure satisfies. This is a very useful thight for a app to be used over many platform. It increases the utility and customer base of the app. What else is required for satisfaction?

The fourth explanation is Cloud Storage.

All your correspondence, photographs from the rest, video with felines, everything is put away in the cloud. All obviously decreased, however you will lose nothing. This is unquestionably not new, yet actualized better than WhatsApp, where you are approached to spare or not. It’s everything naturally, and you won’t have the option to turn into a bonehead. Even you can control what you want to be it there and what not.

Reason Five – Security.

A similar mystery visits with auto erasure, login passwords and two-advance approval. That is, it is now more ensured than the rest, and this can be a definitive factor for some (in spite of the fact that I comprehend that in the CIS inclusion is still exceptionally little). Be that as it may, everything works like a clock, the secret key can’t be skirted, two-phase approval understands when you attempt to hack. I trust everybody thinks about mystery chats.

Reason six – Bots, channels and stickers.

It appears to be inept, yet well known. I myself am not an enthusiast of this all, however such huge numbers of my companions effectively use it. What’s more, it is made extremely advantageous that administration that utilisation. You can make a bot through the customer itself (though the most crude one), and everything is as of now there. Stickers are obviously a disputable issue, yet everything is free, and it is exceptionally decent.

All out.

Durov by and by made a too mass item that has just detonated. It is totally free, it has a chic interface, it is completely all over, and there is even security. In any case, there are no calls, and this is downright awful (in spite of the fact that I can’t help thinking that they will show up very soon). The end is this, download decisively, and companions call to go. The sooner it gets well known, the quicker we overlook the bad dream called Viber. (+ open Programming interface for designers)

FAQ

What is a telegram used for?

  • Telegram is an online messaging app that works exactly like the popular WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger messaging apps. This means that when linked to Wi-Fi, or your mobile phone, you can use it to send messages to your friends. Or you can also use it to build a professional community

Is telegram secure?

  • Yeah, Telegram is more reliable than Whatsapp, they have optional end-to-end encryption and Hidden Chats locally encrypted data. If you’re paranoid about protection, you may want to try fully secure messengers like Threema (paid iOS and Android app) or Safe (free iOS, Ios, and Windows Phone app). Now every app have got end to end encryption.

Can telegram be hacked?

  • Actually hacking on telegram isn’t easy. You did not require two step verification, however, in the Event, then somebody can pass the verification of SMS code and log into your account. If you are searching for some activity without your presence on your account, the hackers could do it. Every this can be hacked only we need to find or make a new loop hole in app.

What is Telegram and It’s features

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Hello everyone! Today we will talk about what a Telegram is and why it is needed. And I will list the main advantages, disadvantages, differences from other messengers and tell you how to use it.

Telegram is a messenger for exchanging data between users. It allows you to conduct a private or group conversation, subscribe to channels and use / create bots. It also supports the exchange of files, multimedia materials of various formats. Well, the owner and main developer is Pavel Durov. Yes, yes, the very creator of the social network VKontakte. And now let’s talk about everything in order and as detailed as possible.

 

What is Telegram and what are its features?

According to legend, the idea of ​​creation came to Pavel Durov even before he left the post of director of VKontakte. The developer really wanted for himself and others the rights to personal space. As a result, on August 14, 2013, Telegram became available to all users of iOS devices, the first service that does not provide information about its users to any government.

The main feature of the application is the privacy of each user. No one has access to personal files, and correspondence is visible only to the person and his interlocutor. Cool, right? In addition, during registration, each user comes up with his own unique “nickname”, and the account is tied to a phone number. Accordingly, for authorization on another device, you will have to pass verification by code from SMS. Those. without a phone, no one else can simply get into your account.

So, Telegram, what is it and why is it needed? The main function of the application is to provide us with the opportunity to conduct a dialogue or create conversations that can be accompanied by the exchange of files of various formats, including photos, videos or text documents. Since the release of the application, a whole series of innovations has appeared in it: free stickers, the ability to create bots, channels, edit messages and unlimited space for storing your own information.

Groups:

A group in Telegram is a chat in which 3 or more users participate. The maximum number of interlocutors is 200,000 (and once it was only 5,000). Recently, it has become popular to create interest groups: for webmasters, freelancers, designers, engineers, SMMs, programmers, etc.

Each newcomer to the chat immediately sees the entire history of the correspondence. Those. You don’t have to duplicate important alerts, he will be able to find everything. This is especially true for groups consisting of employees of medium and large companies, when there may be a reshuffle, dismissal or recruitment.

Channels:

Channels are used by many famous bloggers, and they are often created to promote the brand. For information on how to create or find them, see the information in my articles.

Favorites Tab

Unlimited storage space for user information. A kind of cloud storage in which you can store files, favorite messages and recordings from channels.

Bots:

Miniature assistants designed to make life easier for admins of groups or channels. They are used for:

  • channel management;
  • creating entertaining content;
  • responses to commands with pre-recorded responses;
  • search information on the Internet;
  • creating surveys;
  • decoration of posts;
  • recently, through bots, you can organize the sale of goods.
  • completely free stickers;
  • built-in mini-games with a highscore system;
  • huge conversations;
  • purchase and sale of goods;
  • confidentiality;
  • digital information repository;
  • the ability to create your own content: stickers, bots;
  • multi-platform.

Differences from other messengers:

It’s rare in which service for communication between users you find:

Yes of course, most of these functions can be found in every second messenger. However, some of them will certainly be paid or will be absent altogether.

How to download Telegram:

To take advantage of all the features of the application you need to have a phone number and any modern gadget. The messenger supports all popular platforms: windows, android, ios, etc.

For Phone you just need to head to your app store and download the app.

The procedure is available in the browser version of the service – TelegramWeb. Well, in order to log in to any other device, you will need to enter the code from SMS.

After registering, when you find yourself in the application, people from the phone book will be displayed in contacts. You can find friends, bots, and channels by their aliases or addresses. For this, the application has a general search.

Conclusion:

So, if you are still wondering – “What is a Telegram and why is it needed”, then the answer is simple – this is a trading platform, cloud storage and a bit of a social network. The messenger is developing rapidly and every year its functionality only grows and improves. I am sure that in a year he will get a bunch of useful chips and use it will become even more pleasant and convenient. That’s all for me. Subscribe, tell your friends and see you in the next articles! Good luck

How to install custom firmware on Android

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Every  Android user has heard about the so-called  custom firmware , but here’s how to install them specifically on your model of smartphone or tablet, there is very little information, or it is scattered across the Internet.

 This article only applies to the installation of custom firmware using ZIP UPDATES, and not in any other way.

Briefly about the main thing(rom) …

The Android operating system, it will remain the same for Africa, whether you have Samsung, LG, HTC, Sony, Motorola or another manufacturer … There is a certain set of rules, a sequence of actions that are slightly supplemented depending on the manufacturer, but the process of installing custom firmware similar to all devices. These are the simple steps:

  1. Download firmware
  2. Download Google services (optional)
  3. Making backup (optional)
  4. Unlock Bootloader (once, depending on the brand)
  5. Install Recovery (once)
  6. We install firmware and Google Services
  7. Data reset
  8. Waiting for first boot

A total of 8 steps (2 optional, 2 are performed once). Of these, in the future you will only repeat 3 – 5 if suddenly, you want to change the firmware.

We will not be responsible if anything happens to your device.

Although the chances are very less if you follow the procedure correctly.

Ready made solution!

The techgamerz.com site has prepared separate instructions for installing custom firmware on the following brands and manufacturers:

  • Install custom firmware on Nexus
  • Install custom firmware on Samsung
  • Install custom firmware on HTC

Where can I find custom firmware for your Android?

There are various  custom firmware  from various manufacturers, which is best for you to know only yourself, so try and experiment!

  • Firmware Linage os (former CyanogenMod)
  • Firmware MIUI
  • Firmware OMNI ROM
  • Paranoid Android firmware – officialamateur
  • Firmware Aokp
  • Firmware Slim ROM
  • Firmware Pac man
  • Firmware Carbon ROM
  • Firmware Resurrection remix
  • Firmware PRO-BAM (AOSB)

Also on the Internet (recommended resources XDA,), you can find many other custom firmwares made on the basis of the previously listed major projects. Found a firmware? Fine! Download it and move on!

Download GAPPS

Do not rush to jump over this header! You’re probably used to using Google services – Google Play app store, YouTube, Gmail, Maps, etc. In the original custom firmware they are not! Therefore, you will need a ZIP update from  GAPPS . It is necessary to download the GAPPS version from the Android version on which the custom firmware is based (if the firmware is with Android 4.4, then GAPPS must be for Android 4.4).

Doing Backup

This item is optional, but what if you want to go back or something goes wrong? Therefore,  back up .

Unlock Bootloader

You are the lucky owner of Sony, HTC, Huawei, Nexus, then you have an additional procedure on the way to installing custom firmware – unlocking Bootloader.

  • Unlock  Sony Bootloader
  • Unlock  Bootloader HTC
  • Unlock  Bootloader Huawei
  • Unlock  Bootloader Nexus

This procedure is performed once and can be skipped in the future.

Find and download custom Recovery (or Kernel with Recovery)

You are moving leaps and bounds to install your first custom firmware! Continuing … You also need to download custom Recovery, why do you ask?

There are several reasons:

  1. In some devices, it is not corny (Recovery), but you need to install custom firmware and GAPPS from it
  2. Installing custom firmware from under the original Recovery (if any) will fail due to the fact that there is no manufacturer’s signature there, and custom Recovery disables the signature and allows the installation of various ZIP updates, including custom firmware.

In some cases, Recovery is built into the Android kernel (Sony, sometimes Samsung), so you need to search for the kernel with CWM or TWRP Recovery instead of just looking for Recovery.

The  https://www.xda-developers.com/ describes in detail where to find it and how to install it –  Download and Install Recovery . You can also search Recovery in Google and XDA resources.

If you will not delete Recovery in the future, then you do not need to install it again.

Custom Firmware Installation

So you have done the following required actions:

  1. Download custom firmware
  2. GAPPS downloaded
  3. Unlocked Bootloader
  4. Download and install Recovery

Now move the ZIP archives – Custom firmware and GAPPS to the memory card (if there is a slot) or the internal memory of the Android smartphone or tablet. Go to the Recovery menu . After that, first install the ZIP archive of Custom firmware, and after GAPPS.

  • Install ZIP from  СWM Recovery
  • Install ZIP from  TWRP Recovery

Data Reset

After you installed Custom firmware, you must perform a data reset, it is necessary then that the data that was created by the previous firmware (official) is incompatible with the newly installed. Therefore, it is very important to  reset the data or wipe . If the reset is not performed, then you will get the eternal boot Android (bootloop).

Android first boot

After installing Custom firmware and resetting the data, restart Android, as a rule the first download is very long and lasts from 3 minutes to 15 minutes. This is due to the first configuration of the hardware before installing the system. The most important thing is not to be nervous and not to reboot the device during this period of time.

This completes the process of installing Custom firmware! Perhaps someone will think that it takes a lot of time for everything about everything, but in fact, if you fully understand everything you are doing, the process lasts no more than 15 minutes (if you do not take into account downloading the necessary one and waiting for the first download).

Oneplus 8, Pro And Lite Are Near

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The large Chinese corporation BBK is expanding its presence in the smartphone market due to new products from the Realme and Oppo sub-brands. Along with this, the main attention is drawn to products manufactured under the name OnePlus.This year, the brand released the seventh generation of phones, giving customers a choice of quite a lot of trim levels. Along with this, the manufacturers hinted at preparing for the release of the continuation of the line. The OnePlus 8 Pro smartphone should be one of the first to receive a new processor from Qualcomm and a screen with a frequency of 120 Hz.

 

Available today, information about the device appeared thanks to the efforts of well-known insiders. At the same time, manufacturers confirmed almost all the information, answering questions from users of the company forum. The phone is expected to receive top-end features and updated cameras. However, cardinal changes in design are not expected. Due to the confirmed data, today you can formulate a full review of the upcoming flagship from OnePlus.

Appearance:

One plus 8

You should not expect drastic changes in the design of the G8 – the designers chose the optimal case sizes and the ratio of elements at the time of the OnePlus 7 development. The only remarkable feature is the return of the front camera back to the display. Still I personally think that the design with some minor changes give the phone a new and fresh look. I am personally not disappointed with the new design. The experiment with the periscope mechanism, apparently, did not bring the desired results to the company. Before proceeding to a detailed examination of the features of the case, it is worth stopping at its dimensions:

height – 165.3 mm;
width – 74.4 mm;
thickness – 8.8 mm;
weight – 200 gr.

The front end got a lot in common with its predecessor – OnePlus 7T Pro . The large display is cut-out and surrounded by minimal bezels. The conversational speaker engineers fit in the upper bound. and the front camera was moved directly to the screen. Such a decision is considered quite controversial, but the manufacturers decided to abandon the “bangs” and “drops”, as well as additional mechanisms.

The back panel is made of frosted glass to suit the trend set by Apple. The surface does not collect fingerprints and does not slip, making the device more comfortable in the hand. The designers focused on the main camera unit, which is divided into three separate elements. In a massive glass area with a small protrusion fit three sensors, one more, as well as a flash – a little to the left.

Lateral faces practically did not change. The basis is a familiar metal chassis, on the right side of which there is a power button and a switch of ringer modes. On the left, the place was found only for the volume rocker, and the SIM card tray is located at the bottom – next to the Type-C connector and multimedia speaker. There is no audio jack in the G8, but there is an adapter for USB in the kit.

One plus 8

Display:

The developers of OnePlus most likely decided to listen to the numerous comments on the official forum and install an AMOLED matrix with a frequency of 120 Hz in the new model. The diagonal is 6.7 inches with an aspect ratio of 19.5: 9 and a resolution of FHD +. According to established tradition, the screen is equipped with an ultrasound fingerprint scanner. The side faces are slightly curved, thereby achieving a visual absence of frames.

The following display features deserve special attention:

increased refresh rate – earlier matrices operating at 120 Hz were installed only on the ROG Phone 2 gaming smartphone . This solution gives more comfort not only in mobile games, but also during normal use due to smoother animations;
front-facing hole – engineers promise to place a small-diameter selfie module. Thus, the round element will not attract much attention and will fit well into the adapted design of the graphic shell.
According to insiders, similar matrices will appear in the Samsung Galaxy S11, which is scheduled for release in the spring of 2020.

Cameras:

The ability to take photos in previous versions of OnePlus was significantly inferior to flagships from other brands. With the release of the G8, engineers are making an attempt to improve the situation due to the optimal set of sensors for the main camera. It is also expected that the new optics will show decent results through recycled software. The equipment of the module is impressive:

the main 60-megapixel Sony IMX686 sensor with full optical stabilization and zoom;
12 megapixel TV, also equipped with optical zoom;
ultra-wide lens with a resolution of 16 megapixels;
ToF-camera for creating photos in portrait mode and augmented reality.

Of course, this solution will cope with 4K video recording at 60 frames per second. The presence of stabilization will help optimize shooting. Among the additional modes, attention is drawn to slow motion recording. The possibility of creating clips in 1080p with 960 frames is expected.

Engineers decided not to pay serious attention to the parameters of the front camera. OnePlus 8 Pro will receive a familiar 16 Megapixel module with autofocus support and the option to unlock the phone in the face.

Specifications:

The new flagship is guaranteed to receive the expected Snapdragon 865 chipset, the main feature of which is a significant increase in performance relative to its predecessor. Through the use of Cortex A-77 cores, an increase in overall performance of 20% is expected. The Adreno 650 coprocessor is responsible for the graphics, which also received acceleration up to 15%. Additionally, the phone is equipped with a 5G-modem Snapdragon X55.

The OnePlus 8 Pro will go on sale in two trim levels – for 8 and 12 GB of RAM, the storage volume for user data will be 256 GB. Opportunities to expand the memory with MicroSD cards will not be new. Long battery life is provided by a 4100 mAh battery. The manufacturer promises to present with the device an updated charger with a capacity of more than 30 watts.

Nearest analogues:

Considering the technical equipment of the OnePlus 8 Pro, serious competitors among the flagships available on the market cannot be found today. In the future, the device will compete with the Samsung Galaxy S11 and the new versions of Huawei, which will also receive more powerful chipsets.

Estimated release date and price
Despite the availability of details about all the parameters of the OnePlus 8 Pro, the release in 2019 is not worth the wait. In addition, in October, a rather loud presentation of the updated “seven” took place, which received top-end characteristics and a 90 Hz display. Information on the exact release date of the new product, according to insiders, will appear no earlier than the second quarter of 2020. Then it will become known about the start of sales in India.

According to preliminary information, the price of OnePlus 8 Pro in the minimum configuration will be around 850-950$.

Summary:

OnePlus 8 Pro is expected to become a worthy competitor for any flagship Android-smartphone. Engineers decided to focus on the technical component of the gadget, while maintaining a recognizable design. If the price known today is confirmed, then the new OnePlus is guaranteed to occupy a leading position in the market.

Pros:

AMOLED-matrix with a refresh rate of 120 Hz;
Updated Snapdragon 865 processor with 5G support

  • fast charge with a powerful power supply;
  • a serious set of cameras,
  • supplemented by a ToF-sensor;
    frosted glass on the back.

Cons:

A serious con in one of the most popular flagships on Android is a difficult task. Doubts are caused only by the capabilities of the main camera and the mediocre quality of the front camera. We will be able to give the full review once the device is fully launched. Saying anything beforehand is not right as of now. As some of the information we get might also be wrong. One thing of which I am still sure it that the phone is going to be really good with very less numbers of flaws.